The cavovarus deformity

Cavovarus foot combines the challenges of high arch, or cavus with an inward facing heel or

varus. The condition is closely associated with several neurologic conditions and may be

inherited or acquired. Cavovarus foot impacts gait and may cause calluses on the foot and pain

with walking. It also increases vulnerability to stress fractures, ankle sprains and weakness. Our

Atlanta podiatrist can help you understand this condition and work with you to develop an

appropriate treatment plan.

Diagnosis of cavovarus deformity

The condition can affect one or both feet. Cavovarus deformity is not evident at birth but

becomes so with age, and is progressive. A common indicator is an arch that is noticeably high

with standing. In fact, the height of the arch may be such that finding shoes that fit well is


During your appointment our Board certified Atlanta podiatrist will review your medical history and examine the impacted foot. We will evaluate your walking pattern and footfall. Cavovarus deformity

frequently causes undue pressure on the heel and ball of the foot. Muscle testing will be

performed as rigidity of the foot will dictate treatment plans. Neurological testing may also be

performed as a part of the exam.

Commonly associated conditions include:

  • Cerebral palsy
  • Charcot-Marie- Tooth
  • Spinal cord lesions
  • Polio
  • Stroke

Treatment of cavovarus deformity

The treatment plan will depend on the severity of the condition. Mild cases can be effectively

managed with orthotics that better balance footfall. Ankle and foot bracing are also options.

Cases that are more severe or do not respond to the initial treatment approach may be addressed

with surgery to release ligaments and reposition the affected bones. Surgical approaches are

developed individually as considerations can vary greatly.

Our Atlanta podiatrist has extensive experience treating all conditions of the foot and ankle. We

work with adults and children to develop treatment plans that relieve discomfort and improve

quality of life. If you have cavovarus deformity, or any concerns about your ankles or feet, we

can help.

Give us a call today to schedule your convenient appointment. Our friendly, professional staff is

ready to answer your questions and help you start feeling better as soon as possible.

Ankle Injuries: Stress Fractures

Stress fractures are injuries that occur most often in the second and third metatarsals. They are

common among runners but can happen to anyone. In fact, stress fractures are not uncommon

among people carrying out ordinary daily activities. If you suspect a stress fracture, give our

Atlanta podiatrist a call to schedule an urgent appointment. Outcomes are generally good with

early intervention. Not sure what is causing the pain in your foot or ankle? Learn more about

stress fractures, including causes and treatment options here.

Causes of stress fractures

Stress fractures are most often caused by overuse. Such an injury may occur:

  • If you suddenly increase the length or intensity of your exercise routine. Injury results

because the bones have not had adequate opportunity to build themselves to withstand the

increased demands.

  • If you change the surface of your exercise. Examples include a change from running on

the treadmill to running outside.

  • If you wear shoes without adequate support. Shoes that do not provide enough cushioning

provide less protection from injury.

  • If you walk on uneven surfaces.
  • If you are taking certain kinds of medication or have osteoporosis.


The most common symptom of stress fractures is pain. You may also experience swelling,

tenderness and bruising. Although stress fractures are most common in the mid foot they also

occur frequently in the ankle joint and heel. If you suspect a stress fracture it is important to see

our Atlanta podiatrist for care. Left untreated a stress fracture will lead to increased pain. Other

complications include a complete break of the bone or improper healing of the bone. Until your

appointment stay off the injury and practice the RICE protocol (Rest, Ice, Compression,

Elevation). You may also want to use an over the counter, anti-inflammatory pain reliever, such

as Aleve.

Your Appointment

Our Atlanta podiatrist will want to learn from you about your medical history, recent activities

and any medications you are taking. We will perform a visual exam and probe the affected area,

noting your response. In some cases, imaging may be required to confirm the diagnosis.


If you have a stress fracture the most important thing you can do is avoid weight bearing

activities. You should expect a full recovery in six to eight weeks if you follow the treatment

plan carefully. If you return to normal activities too soon, you will extend the healing time and

likely worsen the injury. Depending on the location of the injury our Atlanta podiatrist may

recommend crutches, immobilization or protective footwear. In some cases, surgery is required.

We will work together with you to develop the most appropriate treatment plan

Stress fractures are common injuries that are very treatable. If you have one, please call to

schedule your appointment right away. Early intervention improves outcomes. Our Atlanta

podiatrist has experience treating all conditions of the foot and ankle. Call us with confidence.

We are here to help.

Ankle Injuries: Stenosing Flexor Hallucis Tenosynovitis

Ankle injuries such as stenosing flexor hallucis tenosynovitis are common among ballet dancers

and athletes like soccer players, ice skaters and gymnasts. A common factor is repetitive

forefront push-off and hyperextended plantar flexion or extreme downward movement of the

toes toward the sole of the foot. No matter how the injury occurred our Atlanta podiatrist can

provide treatment that gets you on the mend.

Common symptoms

The flexor hallucis longus muscle makes it possible to bend the big toe. It also is responsible for

movements such as pointing the foot and ankle down, lifting up onto the toes and maintaining

the arch of the foot. Performed too often or in the extreme, these movements cause injury. Signs

to watch out for include:

  • Pain, tenderness and swelling around the ankle. Pain is often more pronounced with

jumping and flexing of the big toe. In some cases, pain can be present after rest such as

upon waking.

  • Pain around the big toe.
  • Stenosis – The big toe freezes in the plantar position.

Early treatment is important as the onset of pain is gradual. Without appropriate intervention you

can expect the condition, and related symptoms, to worsen. Recovery is also prolonged. Caught

early, the injury may be resolved in a few weeks. Later, the prognosis for recovery can extend to

several months.

Schedule an appointment with our Atlanta podiatrist

During your exam you will be asked to share your health history and information about activity

related to the injury. Our Atlanta podiatrist will perform a visual and physical exam to observe

symptoms as well as response to touch and movement. In some cases, imaging may be required

to fully understand the extent of the injury.


Outcomes are greatly improved with adherence to the treatment plan. RICE (Rest, Ice,

Compression and Elevation) is recommended to prevent further injury and promote healing. We

may also advise:

  • FHL exercises – gentle stretching practiced daily.
  • Massage
  • Boots, taping or crutches to avoid undue strain of the injured area.
  • Over the counter preparations to relieve any related pain.

Again, treatment compliance is critical as progressive or chronic injury reduces positive recovery

outcomes. We can help. Our Atlanta podiatrist has experience treating all conditions of the foot

ankle. We work with our patients to understand their needs and develop the most appropriate

treatment plan. Give us a call today to schedule a convenient appointment. Let us put our

expertise to work for you.

Deltoid Ankle sprains and tears

Your deltoid ligament connects your leg bone to your ankle. It has two layers, one deep and the

other superficial. Because of the ligament’s strength, deltoid or medial ankle sprains are less

common than other types of ankle sprains and can be more debilitating. Early intervention by an

experienced foot and ankle specialist is essential. Trust our Atlanta podiatrist to accurately

diagnosis deltoid ankle sprains or tears and put you on the road to recovery.

Causes of a deltoid ankle sprain or tear

These kinds of ankle injuries are more common with trauma, such as severe twisting on an

uneven surface or damage to the fibula. Other causes include overuse and sports such as ballet,

soccer and gymnastics.

Symptoms of a deltoid ankle sprain or tear

Deltoid sprains often bring symptoms that are tough to ignore. These include:

  • Rapid swelling
  • Pain
  • Reduced range of motion
  • Difficulty bearing weight with the impacted ankle – seek immediate attention
  • Bruising
  • Ankle looks deformed – seek immediate attention

If bruising, swelling and discomfort last more than a couple of days please call our Atlanta

podiatrist for an appointment.

Diagnosis of the condition

Our Atlanta podiatrist has experience treating a variety of conditions of the foot and ankle.

During the exam we will talk with you to understand how the injury occurred. Your recall of

events leading up to the sprain can offer clues that help us develop a complete picture of the

problem. We will also perform a physical exam taking note of your range of motion and level of

pain. Imaging, such as x-ray’s, may also be required.

Treatment of deltoid ankle sprain or tear

In most cases the injury can be successfully treated with RICE (rest, ice, compression and

elevation). Over the counter products such as Aleve can help with pain and swelling. Taping and

bracing of the injury can complement compression. The injured ankle should be elevated most of

the time, so plan accordingly at work and at home.


It is important to cut back on physical activities and avoid placing undue weight on the injured

ankle. For more severe sprains surgery and physical therapy may be required. You can expect to

make a full recovery in about eight months. That timeframe can be delayed by failure to observe

the treatment plan or an inaccurate diagnosis. We can help. Our Atlanta podiatrist understands all

conditions of the foot and ankle. We will work with you to accurately diagnose your condition

and provide excellent care. Let us get you back on your feet as quickly as possible.

Juvenile osteochondrosis in the foot & ankle

Children and young adults are more likely than other age groups to be diagnosed with

osteochondrosis. This condition impacts the joints. The ankle is a common site although other

joints, such as the elbow and knee can be involved. Our Atlanta podiatrist has experience treating

this and many other conditions of the foot and ankle. We know how difficult it can be when

children are impacted by any kind of health condition. Let us put our experience to work for your

peace of mind.

Causes of juvenile osteochondrosis

Although a pattern of associated conditions has been identified, a definitive cause for

osteochondrosis has not. Common co-occurring conditions include:

  • Rapid growth – one reason the condition is common among children.
  • Heredity – children are more likely to experience this condition if their parent(s) did.
  • Interruption of blood supply to the bone associated with the affected joint.
  • Overuse or trauma to the affected area.

Symptoms of osteochondrosis: Pain and swelling at the joint are the most common symptoms

of the juvenile osteochondrosis. Physical activity may increase the severity of symptoms. Other

symptoms include:

  • Joint stiffening.
  • Joint locking or popping.
  • Joint weakness.

What to expect during your appointment

Think of us as a partner in maintaining your child’s good health. We will talk with you to get a

full understanding of your young person’s medical history and current symptoms. We will also

perform a physical exam. Imaging may be required to determine the extent of the problem.

Treatment options

Some children outgrow juvenile osteochondrosis, however, monitoring and pain management are

important considerations. Encourage your child to reduce sports participation or strenuous

activities until cleared by our Atlanta podiatrist. Over the counter pain relievers may be

administered as needed. We may also recommend:

  • Wearing a brace or cast,
  • Exercises to strengthen the associated muscles.

With proper care most patients experience recovery within two to four months. In rare cases

surgery is required to manage the condition. Available surgical options vary based on each

child’s individual needs. Post-surgical follow up often includes the use of crutches for several

weeks followed by physical therapy. Most patients can expect to return to sports activities in

about six months.

It is important to access care for osteochondrosis. Left untreated the condition will deteriorate,

and is less likely to resolve without surgery. Our Atlanta podiatrist has many years’ experience

treating conditions of the foot and ankle, including juvenile osteochondrosis. That means peace

of mind for parents. If you have concerns or questions about juvenile ostechondrosis, give us a

call today.

Ankle Injuries: Peroneal Tendon Tears

Your peroneal tendons are just behind the fibula (lower leg bone), and run outside your ankle.

These tendons support activities like walking, running and other things that involve flexing the

foot. Injury to the peroneal tendon is common, particularly among athletes…including weekend

warriors. The good news is early intervention produces good outcomes. Here’s what you need to

know about this type of ankle injury and when you should give us a call. We can treat a variety

of foot and ankle injuries. Our Atlanta podiatrist is experienced with a range of conditions and

can help you feel better fast.

Peroneal tendon tears

Peroneal tendon tears often occur when peroneal tendinosis is left untreated. Tendinosis

frequently results from overuse. Long distance runners, and even those who may have recently

started running or increased their mileage, are prone to tendinosis. Irregular gait may also

contribute to the problem.

Symptoms include:

  •  Pain or discomfort on the outer part of the ankle.
  • Swelling in the affected area.
  • Difficulty walking or engaging in other activities that involve ankle movement.

Give us a call if the pain is prolonged or does not improve with rest.

Diagnosis of tendinosis

Our Atlanta podiatrist has healed many ankle injuries. Healing begins with an appointment,

during which we will perform a visual and physical examination of the area to determine if any

inflammation is present or if the tendons have ruptured. We may also manipulate your foot to

gauge pain with motion or use imaging technology to rule out fractures.

Treatment of tendinosis and peroneal tears

We specialize in conservative treatment methods that help you feel better fast. Our goal is to

provide early intervention for best outcomes.

Treatment of tendinosis

If caught early, the primary treatment is rest. Activity reduction allows the tendon to heal, thus

avoiding more extensive injury. In some cases we may recommend a boot or ankle brace. In

every case we recommend patience. Resuming regular weight bearing activity too soon will

delay the healing process. Physical therapy may also be indicated. Without proper care and

treatment, tendinosis can lead to a tear. When there is a tear, or a split along the tendons, our

Atlanta podiatrist will clean and repair the tendon. Again, proper care is critical because peroneal

tears can encourage chronic thickening of the tendon, which reduces long term outcomes.

If you are experiencing pain with walking, running or other foot flexing activity, please give us a

call. Together we can develop a care and treatment plan that arrests your injury before more

extensive problems arise. Let us help you feel better and get back on your feet fast.

Diabetic foot problems

Especially if you have been diagnosed with diabetes it is important to work in concert with a

podiatrist to protect the health of your feet. Amputations of the feet and legs are far more

common among diabetics than any other segment of the population. That’s because there are a

number of diabetic foot problems that can worsen quickly and lead to irreparable damage. Our

Atlanta podiatrist can work with you to develop a care and treatment plan. We have experience

treating all conditions of the legs and feet. If you have any concerns about pain, sores or

numbness, don’t wait. Being proactive will improve your chances of recovery. These are

common problems to watch for.

Nerve damage or neuropathy – With nerve damage you may notice burning or tingling in your

foot. It is also possible that you may lose feeling in your foot. This is particularly problematic

because you will not feel pain if the foot becomes injured. For diabetics, minor injuries can lead

to major problems without appropriate intervention. Nerve damage can also cause the foot or

toes to become deformed.

Be proactive; examine your feet daily for bruises, wounds or skin discoloration. Call our Atlanta

podiatrist immediately if you experience loss of feeling, burning, tingling or injury. Regular

appointments are essential if you have nerve damage. Many complications can be avoided or

minimized with regular monitoring.

Peripheral vascular disease or poor circulation – One complication of diabetes is constriction

of the blood vessels. When blood flow is reduced it is more difficult to heal even minor wounds.

You may also find that your feet or toes feel cold. Avoid soaking feet in hot water as inadequate

oil production can lead to severely over dry and damaged skin. Reduced sensitivity to pain

makes use of heating pads or hot water dangerous as well. Instead, wear warm socks and keep

the heels and soles of your feet moisturized. Complete loss of circulation will lead to gangrene,

or dead tissue and amputation. Moderate exercise, such as walking, yoga or swimming can

improve circulation. Smoking, which worsens artery health, should be strictly avoided.

Foot ulcers – You should limit walking as much as possible when you have a foot ulcer.

Pressure on the wound often leads to or worsens infection. We can work with you on care and

management options such as protective shoes or braces.

Please give us a call even if the ulcer does not cause any discomfort. Wound cleaning, removal

of any dead or infected tissue and antibiotics can improve long term outcomes. It is vitally

important to attend to foot ulcers immediately because neglect is a common cause of amputation.

Schedule an appointment today

Our Atlanta podiatrist is your partner in good foot health. We will examine your feet carefully. If

you have an infection, we may take a culture to determine the type. Ulcers are visually examined

and graded according to size and severity. In some cases imaging may be required.

We will work with you to determine when surgical interventions are the best course of action for

managing peripheral artery disease or foot deformity. With neuropathy, foot deformity or

peripheral vascular disease, care and monitoring visits are recommended at least bi-monthly.

Proactive care is essential for managing diabetic foot problems. Call us to schedule an

appointment today.

Fungal skin and nail infections

Fungal skin and nail infections are common, particularly among adults older than 60.

Contributing factors include diabetes, poor circulation, compromised immune function, poor

circulation and injury to the nail. If you are experiencing fungal infections of the skin and or

nails, our Atlanta podiatrist can help. We have many years’ experience with treating myriad

conditions of the foot. Let us put our experience to work for you.

Causes of fungal skin and nail infections

Fungus enters the body when the skin is compromised. Usually that is through an opening under

the nail or a small cut. The infection is caused by entry of these fungi, or germs, into your body.

You can reduce your chances of fungal skin and nail infections by:

  • Wearing shower shoes or flip flops in public areas such as the pool and locker rooms.

Fungi thrive in warm, moist areas.

  • Not sharing towels, nail clippers or other items that encourage the spread of germs

through cuts or contact with skin. Be especially careful if you have athlete’s foot as the

infection causing germs can spread to your nails.

  • Keeping your feet and toenails clean and dry.
  • Toenails should be trimmed regularly. Avoid wet shoes or shoes that cause your feet to


Symptoms of fungal skin and nail infections

The infected nail may become unsightly, thickened and yellow. Your skin may be scaly and

inflamed. You may also experience discomfort, especially on standing or when wearing shoes.

Diagnosis of fungal skin and nail infections

Call our Atlanta podiatrist to schedule an appointment for diagnosis and treatment options. Be

prepared to discuss your symptoms, as well as any concerns you may have about your condition.

We will examine the affected areas. In some cases, we may clip a piece of your nail for testing.

Fungal infections of the skin and nails are not easily cured. It is important to manage or treat the

infection as early as possible to avoid worsening of symptoms. Although fungal skin and nail

infections are not fatal they can be harmful, especially if you have diabetes or a weakened

immune system.

Treatment of fungal skin and nail infections

Options we will consider together include:

  • Watchful waiting – fungal infections will not go away on their own and often get worse.

Still, if the infection is not causing any pain or inconvenience you may decide it is best to

watch and wait.

  • Anti-fungal creams – over the counter and prescription medications are available.

Treatment times vary from a few weeks to several months. In some cases, the infection is

not cured

  • Anti-fungal pills – oral anti-fungal treatments yield higher success rates. Unfortunately,

they are also associated with side effects. Together we will review your individual health

concerns as well as the pros and cons of this option so you can make the best decision.

  • Nail removal – this option is available in some cases.

You may feel too embarrassed to wear sandals or expose your feet if you have a fungal skin or

nail infection. We want to help. Our Atlanta podiatrist will work with on developing an

appropriate treatment plan. Stop hiding your feet. Let us help you get better.

Plantar Warts

Plantar warts are growths that occur on the bottom surface of the foot. Because they are usually

on the heel or the ball of the foot, walking can be painful. If you are experiencing plantar warts

that have not responded to home remedies, give us a call. Our experience with treating a variety

of conditions of the foot and ankle means you can count on feeling better fast.

Causes of Plantar Warts

Plantar warts, also called foot warts, are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). You may

come into contact with HPV on surfaces in moist areas where the virus thrives. Common places

of transmission include pool areas and locker rooms. HPV enters the body at places where the

skin is compromised. Especially if you have cuts or scrapes on your feet, it is a good idea to wear

shower shoes or flip flops in public places. You are also more vulnerable to plantar warts if your

immune system is weakened.

Symptoms of Plantar Warts

Plantar warts are easily identifiable by the hard, rough patch on the sole of the foot. Because of

their placement, walking can be painful. In some cases, plantar warts may not be raised but grow

inward instead.

Treatment options

Plantar warts usually respond well to home remedies. Common options include:

  • Cushion pads to relieve pain and pressure with walking.
  • Duct tape – keep the area continuously covered for several days. Soak and rub the area

with a pumice stone. You can repeat this process.

  • Soaking the affected area in warm water.
  • Over the counter salicylic acid preparations such as Compound W or Wart-Off.
  • For an ingrown wart covered by a callus, a pumice stone can be helpful for removing the

tissue. Soak the affected area first to soften the skin. This remedy is not appropriate for

anyone with diabetes or peripheral artery disease (PAD). In these cases home remedies

are not appropriate. Schedule an appointment with our Atlanta podiatrist immediately.

You can expect improvement of symptoms within a few weeks. It may be several months, or

even a year, before plantar warts are completely resolved. If you don’t notice any improvement

in a few weeks, contact us to learn about additional treatment options. These include:

  • Prescription strength salicylic acid.
  • Freezing – liquid nitrogen is applied to the area.

These are conservative options and require several visits for optimal effectiveness. In rare cases

another level of treatment is indicated. This can include surgery and laser treatments. We offer

experienced advice and will work with you to determine the best option. Give us a call. Our goal

is to get you back on your feet fast.

Plantar Fasciitis – Heel Spurs

Heel spurs are commonly associated with Plantar Fasciitis. Learn more here about these

conditions including symptoms and treatment. When you are ready to schedule an appointment,

give our Atlanta podiatrist a call. Our experience treating a variety of conditions of the foot and

ankle means you will soon be back on your feet.

Heel spurs

A heel spur is a knot on the underside of the heel bone. This bony protrusion is actually a buildup

of calcium deposits. In most cases heel spurs do not cause pain unless pressure is applied with

walking or a similar activity.

Causes of heel spurs

  • Obesity – reduce weight to reduce pressure on the heel.
  • Running and walking – pressure, especially on hard surfaces can lead to heel spurs.
  • Gait – physical therapy can correct foot fall that causes heel spurs.
  • Ill-fitting shoes
  • High arch
  • Excessive standing – choose a supportive surface and shoes with adequate support to reduce the likelihood of heel spurs.

Plantar Fasciitis

As stated earlier, heel spurs commonly occur with Plantar Fasciitis. Plantar Fasciitis is the term

used to describe inflammation of the plantar fascia. The plantar fascia extends along the bottom

of the foot and connects the heel bone with the ball of the foot. If you’re experiencing plantar

fasciitis you aren’t alone. It is the most common cause of heel pain and afflicts millions of people

each year.

Causes of Plantar Fasciitis

There are several common causes of Plantar Fasciitis. As with heel spurs these include:

  • Obesity
  • High arch
  • Running and walking
  • Limited flexibility in the foot

Common symptoms

Plantar fasciitis and heel spurs may cause a sharp pain in the heel upon standing, particularly

after prolonged sitting or sleeping.

You may have noticed that Plantar Fasciitis and heel spurs share several risk factors. They also

share some treatment interventions. During the exam, our Atlanta podiatrist will press the bottom

of your foot and note your response to the pressure. Be prepared to discuss any symptoms,

including pain or discomfort, you have been experiencing. You may also be asked to walk so we

can observe your gait. In some cases, imaging may be required.

Treatment of heel spurs – Our Atlanta podiatrist may recommend physical therapy, stretching

exercises, inserts or taping to relieve pressure on muscles and tendons. An over the counter pain

reliever can also be helpful.

Treatment of plantar fasciitis – After an examination our Atlanta podiatrist may recommend

one or several non-surgical treatment options. These include:

  • Modification of activities – especially if the condition is aggravated by a particular

activity, such as running.

  • Exercise – tight calf muscles can affect the flexibility of the foot and lead to plantar

fasciitis. Calf stretches can bring some relief.

  • Ice
  • Orthotics, heel pad or splints
  • Cortisone injections

Most patients observing the treatment plan can expect a complete recovery within six months. In

about 10% of cases, additional intervention is required. Call us today for an appointment. We can

help you heal heel spurs and plantar fasciitis so you can get back to the business of life.